"To understand an abstract concept in simple terms."

The concept of Time is unique to India.
While the West could think of time from an antiquity 6000 years to 6 Million years that too only in the last couple of hundred years, India has had a concept of thousands of Yuga and Kalpa running into crores and crores of years.

We frequently come across the terms Yuga, Kali yuga, Dwapara yuga, Treta yuga, and Krita yuga collectively called Chathur yuga leading on to Manvantra, Kalpa, Brahma dina, Brahma masa, Brahma varsha and finally Parardha.
The Time span associated with each of the above terminologies is huge, mind boggling and hence seems confounding.
In this capsule an effort is made to understand them not a just abstract figures of enormous time span but as astronomical events and their measure which these terminologies and their time span actually denote.

  1. The calculation of Yugawhich is an alignment of all the planets of the solar system in conjunction with the star Ashwini in the Mesham –Aries constellation.
  2. The time span of each yuga
  Kali yuga   4,32,000
  Dwapara yuga   8,64,000
  Treta yuga   12,96,000
  Krita yuga   17,28,000
  Chathur Yuga   43,20,000

From the above, it is clear that 4,32,000 is 1 Unit of Time.
What is the sanctity, more importantly the scientific reasoning behind this 1 unit of time being 4,32,000 earth years.

  1. Manvantra-14 of them in number, their names.

This is the time taken for the sun to complete its revolution around the center of its galaxy.

  1. Kalpa- 30 of them in number, their names.


One Kalpa is the life span of our Sun – Surya
One Kalpa is also the time taken for one complete revolution of the farthest star in our galaxy.

  1. Similarly, the understanding of BrahmaDinaBrahma MasaBrahma Varsha and Parardha as astronomical events.

How is it possible for Brahma to have such large earth years, as their day, month, year and life span? This intrigue is explained with visuals, as to how our ancients understood the variable concept of Time in space, in different loka, namely other inhabited worlds of the universe.

  1. The concept of Panchamandala and its astronomical significance.
    • Chandra mandala
    • Prithvi mandala
    • Surya mandala
    • Paramesthi mandala
    • Swayambhuva mandala

Scientific explanation of the same which is corroborated by modern astronomical research is discussed with visual details.

  1. Daily sankalpais the concept of time keeping, from a cosmic calendar to a geo- calendar.


In all, the scientific nature of time as understood and practiced even today by Indians, can be seen and appreciated visually.
Where did they get this knowledge of time?
Our ancients’ concept of time and the modern concepts of time and space seem to match well not just with the calculation of elapsed time, but also the concepts of measurements viz a viz. space and its evolution
Kali the goddess, Shakthi is shown as dancing on or along with Shiva who is also called as Maha Kaleshwar. Kali is referred to as the energy of time. Taking this view further, being amazed at the specific astronomical knowledge and the movements of astral bodies which were measured in the form of Time, could there a 4th dimension which has lead to this knowledge.

Kali - the energy of time could well represent this 4th dimension