India has been a prosperous country in the last 5000 years albiet the last couple of 100 years. Infact the statistics compiled show that India had over 25% of the world's share of trade till the 1750's.
Some of the key areas of trade by India to the world have been in the fields of:
Textiles Iron and steel
Spices like pepper, cloves and cardamom have been the traditionally known exports from India to Persia, Arabia and Europe. In Turkey, the very word for spices is Bharath.
Zinc was exported to the world from Zawar in Rajasthan, India till the 17 00's. Infact , Zinc was first produced in Europe only in the mid 1750's after they learn how to smelt Zinc from India.
Wootz Steel :
The Indian Iron and Steel was called Wootzand was famous the world over.
Roman literatures speak about large imports of Wootz steelfrom India.
When Alexander came to the north western part of India, he did not take back gold or silver but instead took Wootz steelas a gift from India.
In the 11 year period from 1670 to 1681 over 1,50, 000 pounds of Wootz steel have been exported from Masulipatnam port in the Coromandel coast to Batavia, the Dutch port by the Dutch East India Company.
The British through the trade policy barred the export of Wootz steelfrom India and also made it difficult for the local craftsmen to produce the steel in their villages.
India has been supplying cotton and muslin to Rome, Greece and to the whole European civilization for well over 2000 years and more. This has been specifically mentioned by various historians like Cicerio, Pliny and others.
The Indian garments and their prints were popular in medieval Europe and were called as "Indienne". Since the supply of Indian prints could not match the demand, the locals were duplicating it in Europe. This made Frederick William I of Germany to ban "Indienne" textiles import from India because it was draining the European economy. That was the impact of Indian garment in Europe.
Given this range of trade from India, the Europeans when they were coming out of the dark ages, decided to have a share in the trade and hence came to India to directly trade in them.
Ports of India:
To facilitate this trade, India had many ports along its long coastline. Some of the famous ports being:
- Wari Bhateshwar
- Bali Jatra
To aid this trade, India had a efficient navigation system through the ages the details of which could be seen in our Navigation capsule. Navigation:
The British when they came to India along with the political control also took total control of trade of this land. This British control was the crushing blow to the trade and the Navigation of India. From 25% of world trade in pre- British days, the Indian trade dropped to less than 1% of world trade during the colonial rule. That was the wreck wrought by the colonial rule on India.
The information about the trade of India during its glorious past is available all over the world in their native records. From this it is obvious that Indians have been great traders through the ages except for the suppressed colonial rule period.
Since independence, the Indians have been once again climbing back the ladder to be great trading nation of this world, the place that rightfully belongs to us through the ages.
From the above, it is clear that 4,32,000 is 1 Unit of Time.
What is the sanctity, more importantly the scientific reasoning behind this 1 unit of time being 4,32,000 earth years.
- Manvantra-14 of them in number, their names.
This is the time taken for the sun to complete its revolution around the center of its galaxy.
- Kalpa- 30 of them in number, their names.
One Kalpais the life span of our Sun – Surya
One Kalpais also the time taken for one complete revolution of the farthest star in our galaxy.
- Similarly, the understanding of BrahmaDina, Brahma Masa, Brahma Varshaand Parardhaas astronomical events.
How is it possible for Brahma to have such large earth years, as their day, month, year and life span? This intrigue is explained with visuals, as to how our ancients understood the variable concept of Time in space, in different loka, namely other inhabited worlds of the universe.
- The concept of Panchamandalaand its astronomical significance.
- Chandra mandala
- Prithvi mandala
- Surya mandala
- Paramesthi mandala
- Swayambhuva mandala
Scientific explanation of the same which is corroborated by modern astronomical research is discussed with visual details.
- Daily sankalpais the concept of time keeping, from a cosmic calendar to a geo- calendar.
In all, the scientific nature of time as understood and practiced even today by Indians, can be seen and appreciated visually.
Where did they get this knowledge of time?
Our ancients' concept of time and the modern concepts of time and space seem to match well not just with the calculation of elapsed time, but also the concepts of measurements viz a viz. space and its evolution
Kali the goddess, Shakthi is shown as dancing on or along with Shiva who is also called as Maha Kaleshwar. Kali is referred to as the energy of time. Taking this view further, being amazed at the specific astronomical knowledge and the movements of astral bodies which were measured in the form of Time, could there a 4th dimension which has lead to this knowledge.
Kali - the energy of time could well represent this 4th dimension